What is inflation and why is it an intensely debated economic phenomenon?
Inflation is considered by most specialists as one of the most serious macroeconomic imbalances that jeopardize the development and economic progress of a country, but “What is inflation?”
The most widespread definition in literature is that “inflation is a process of cumulative and self-sustaining growth in overall price levels and declining money-buying power.” Taking a look at the above image, we can see that we can buy different quantities of products over the years. If today you can buy 1kg of tomatoes with 2 EUR, in a few years you will buy a smaller amount of tomatoes with the same amount of money because inflation has increased and purchasing power has dropped.
But what are the causes of inflation?
– the injection of money into the economy (the state is printing money without cover, the action leads to rising prices and imbalance MV = PT where: M = Money supply V = Currency circulation rate P = General price level T = Volume of transactions)
– demand for goods and services is higher than supply and hence supply-demand imbalance. (increase the incomes of the population and, implicitly, the purchasing power, take the consumer loans and reduce the inclination towards saving)
– rising production prices (increasing production costs, falling production and increasing prices)
– rising prices for imported goods / assets (increasing the price on materials, raw materials, etc.)
– High prices that are not related to the drop in supply or increased demand
The most popular forms of inflation: trap / quiet (rising prices up to 3%), rapid (annual growth rate approaching 10%), galloping (annual price increase exceeds 10%) and hyperinflation (monthly price increase over 50%
<What’s really going on?
The population is affected as the purchasing power decreases, there is a redistribution of income and wealth, confidence in the local currency is lost and the interest in saving is lost.
Companies are forced to reduce production capacity and are more concerned with asset protection against inflationary erosion.
If economic inflation benefits borrowers (who contract loans in the national currency at a certain purchasing power and return them in other inflationary conditions, to a lower buying power) and the interest rate is influenced by the inflation rate.
The inflationist phenomenon is one of the most serious macroeconomic imbalances but I recommend you take a look at hyperinflationary cases.